Urology is the surgical specialty which deals with diseases of the male and female urinary tract, and the male reproductive organs. So expansive is the field of urology, due to the wide variety of clinical problems encountered, it requires a broad knowledge of internal medicine, oncology, pediatrics, gynecology, and geriatrics, in addition to surgical procedures (vasectomy reversal, prostectomy, penile implant, varicocelectomy). Urology encompasses the surgical and medical treatment of a diversity of urological disorders including erectile dysfunction, and various diseases and disorders of the prostate, kidney, and bladder.
Urology has its roots in ancient times and can be traced back in the paintings and printings of Babylonian, Egyptian, and Indian medicine via evidence of multiple diseases, conditions, and even some surgical procedures. Bladder stones have been found in Egyptian mummies dating to several millennia BCE, and the ritual Hebrew rite of circumcision under God's covenant with Abraham has been cited at 4000 BCE. Even before the Middle Ages (c. 500-1500 A.D.), the Greek physician Hippocrates (c.460-c.370 B.C.), recognized as the father of medicine wrote about several morbid affections of the urinary apparatus (area of the body) with great detail and emphasis on the color of the urine, and on urinary sediment of various kinds, general appearance, quantity, and consistency.1
Compounding for Urology
At Empower Pharmacy our compounding professionals can prepare specialized urological medication combinations, dosages, and forms that best suit each of your individual patients’ requirements. We can provide:
- Preservative-Free medications.
- Medications which are free of problem-causing excipients such as dyes, sugars, alcohols, and lactose.
- Combinations of various compatible medications into a single dosage form.
- Special formulations, or medications which are not commercially available.
Compounding our own medications permits us to provide a diversity of prescribed urologic medications, in both individualized dosages and custom preparations including:
- Oral Liquids
- Sterile Injectables
- Rapid Dissolve Tablets
- Troches (lozenges)
For a better idea of our urological capabilities, some of the medications which are most often requested by our urologists include:
Cialis and Viagra (along with Staxyn, Stendra, and Levitra) are the only five oral drugs approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) to treat erectile dysfunction. These drugs Increase the flow of blood into the penis so that sexual stimulation more easily results in erection.23
Among other actions, reduces the chance that prostate surgery will be necessary by lessening the severity of symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH – an enlarged prostate caused condition which usually results in difficulty urinating, a decreased flow of urination, hesitation at the beginning of urination, urgent urination, and nocturnal urination.45
Intracavernosal Injection (self-injections for erectile dysfunction treatment)
Compounded Mixes Include: “Bi-Mix”—Phentolamine and Papaverine; “Tri-Mix”—Prostaglandin, Phentolamine, and Papaverine; “Quad-Mix”—Prostaglandin, Phentolamine, Papaverine, and Forskolin; and “Penta-Mix”--. Prostaglandin, Phentolamine, Papaverine, Forskolin and VIP.2324252627
- 1. United States Pharmacopeia, Chapter 795. Pharmaceutical Compounding-Nonsterile Preparations. Revision Bulletin, Official January 1, 2014 http://www.usp.org/sites/default/files/usp_pdf/EN/gc795.pdf
- 2. Eur Urol. 2014 Feb;65(2):455-64. Tadalafil [Cialis] Once Daily in Men with Erectile Dysfunction: An Integrated Analysis of Data Obtained from 1913 Patients from Six Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Clinical Studies. Porst H, Gacci M, Büttner H, Henneges C, Boess F.
- 3. Urol Ann. 2013 Oct;5(4):237-40. Evaluation of the effect of sildenafil [Viagra] and/or doxazosin on Benign prostatic hyperplasia-related lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction. Abolyosr A, Elsagheer GA, Abdel-Kader MS, Hassan AM, Abou-Zeid AM.
- 4. Int J Clin Pract. 2012 Nov;66(11):1052-5. A 5-year retrospective analysis of 5α-reductase inhibitors in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: finasteride has comparable urinary symptom efficacy and prostate volume reduction, but less sexual side effects and breast complications than dutasteride. Kaplan SA, Chung DE, Lee RK, Scofield S, Te AE.
- 5. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Oct 6;(10). Finasteride for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tacklind J, Fink HA, Macdonald R, Rutks I, Wilt TJ.
- 6. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Dec;65(6):1118-26. The effects of aging in normal men on bioavailable testosterone and luteinizing hormone secretion: response to clomiphene citrate. Tenover JS, Matsumoto AM, Plymate SR, Bremner WJ.
- 7. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Jun;64(6):1103-8. Serum bioactive and immunoreactive follicle-stimulating hormone levels and the response to clomiphene in healthy young and elderly men. Tenover JS, Dahl KD, Hsueh AJ, Lim P, Matsumoto AM, Bremner WJ.
- 8. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2). Clomiphene or tamoxifen for idiopathic oligo/asthenospermia. Vandekerckhove P, Lilford R, Vail A, Hughes E.
- 9. Int J Impot Res. 2003 Jun;15(3):156-65. Clomiphene increases free testosterone levels in men with both secondary hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction: who does and does not benefit? Guay AT, Jacobson J, Perez JB, Hodge MB, Velasquez E.
- 10. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Dec;80(12):3546-52. Effect of raising endogenous testosterone levels in impotent men with secondary hypogonadism: double blind placebo-controlled trial with clomiphene citrate. Guay AT, Bansal S, Heatley GJ.
- 11. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Mar;89(3):1174-80. Effects of aromatase inhibition in elderly men with low or borderline-low serum testosterone levels. Leder BZ, Rohrer JL, Rubin SD, Gallo J, Longcope C.
- 12. Fertil Steril. 2012 Dec;98(6):1359-62. Aromatase inhibitors for male infertility. Schlegel PN.
- 13. Fertil Steril. 2012 Jul;98(1):48-51. Changes in hormonal profile and seminal parameters with use of aromatase inhibitors in management of infertile men with low testosterone to estradiol ratios. Gregoriou O, Bakas P, Grigoriadis C, Creatsa M, Hassiakos D, Creatsas G.
- 14. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986, 62:1184–1192. Chronic human chorionic gonadotropin administration in normal men: evidence that follicle-stimulating hormone is necessary for the maintenance of quantitatively normal spermatogenesis in man. Matsumoto AM, Karpas AE, Bremner WJ
- 15. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 90. Issue 5, May 1, 2005. Low-Dose Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Maintains Intratesticular Testosterone in Normal Men with Testosterone-Induced Gonadotropin Suppression. Andrea D. Coviello, Alvin M. Matsumoto, William J. Bremner, Karen L. Herbst, John K. Amory, Bradley D. Anawalt, Paul R. Sutton, William W. Wright, Terry R. Brown, Xiaohua Yan, Barry R. Zirkin and Jonathan P. Jarow
- 16. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005;6(10):1751-1759. Nebido: A long-acting injectable testosterone for the treatment of male hypogonadism. Harle L, Basaria S, Dobs AS.
- 17. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000;161(1-2):73-88. Hormone substitution in male hypogonadism. Zitzmann M, Nieschlag E.
- 18. J Sex Marital Ther. 2006 May-Jun;32(3):267-73. The sexual effects of testosterone replacement in depressed men: randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seidman SN, Roose SP.
- 19. Endocr J. 2012 Dec 28;59(12):1099-105. Epub 2012 Aug 31. Increased frequency of anxiety, depression, quality of life and sexual life in young hypogonadotropic hypogonadal males and impacts of testosterone replacement therapy on these conditions. Aydogan U, Aydogdu A, Akbulut H, Sonmez A, Yuksel S, Basaran Y, Uzun O, Bolu E, Saglam K.
- 20. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2009 Nov;53(8):996-1004. Short term testosterone replacement therapy improves libido and body composition. Andrade ES Jr, Clapauch R, Buksman S.
- 21. Chin Med J (Engl). 2012 Nov;125(21):3806-10. Androgen replacement therapy improves psychological distress and health-related quality of life in late onset hypogonadism patients in Chinese population. Zhang XW, Liu ZH, Hu XW, Yuan YQ, Bai WJ, Wang XF, Shen H, Zhao YP
- 22. J Sex Med. 2009 Jul;6(7):2049-57. Hypogonadism, decreased sexual desire, and long-term depression in middle-aged men. Hintikka J, Niskanen L, Koivumaa-Honkanen H, Tolmunen T, Honkalampi K, Lehto SM, Viinamäki H.
- 23. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2). Prostaglandin E1 for treatment of erectile dysfunction. Urciuoli R, Cantisani TA, Carlini M, Giuglietti M, Botti FM.
- 24. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014 Feb;15(3):421-8. Alprostadil for the treatment of impotence. Hanchanale V, Eardley I.
- 25. Prog Urol. 2013 Dec;23(17):1489-93. Evaluation of treatment of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in a series of 90 spinal cord injured. Hadiji N, Benbouzid R, Previnaire JG, Leblond C, Mieusset R, Enjalbert M, Soler JM.
- 26. J Sex Med. 2013 Jan;10(1):130-71. SOP conservative (medical and mechanical) treatment of erectile dysfunction. Porst H, Burnett A, Brock G, Ghanem H, Giuliano F, Glina S, Hellstrom W, Martin-Morales A, Salonia A, Sharlip I; ISSM Standards Committee for Sexual Medicine.
- 27. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Oct;23(10):2577-83. Injection therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: a comparison between alprostadil and a combination of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and phentolamine mesilate. Shah PJ, Dinsmore W, Oakes RA, Hackett G.